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University Letter
ISSUE: Volume 42, Number 10: October 29, 2004

UND named one of top 25 entrepreneurial campuses

The University has been named one of “The Top 25 Most Entrepreneurial Undergraduate Campuses in the Country,” by The Princeton Review and UND ranks 14th on the list, ahead of such institutions as Stanford, Loyla Marymount, Temple, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and Boston University

UND has long been an entrepreneurship leader in the United States. One of the very first in the country, UND’s Center for Innovation business incubator celebrated its 20th anniversary this year. The incubator was recently renamed the Skalicky Tech Incubator in honor of Norm Skalicky, a 1955 alum, who has been a strong supporter of UND’s entrepreneurship mission and who recently donated $1 million to create the Skalicky Entrepreneur Endowment. UND is now putting the finishing touches on its second incubator building, the Ina Mae Rude Center.

UND also is one of the few universities in the nation to offer a major in entrepreneurship, as well as the internship and funding programs to back up the major.

Here’s what The Princeton Review and say about UND at

University of North Dakota

A tech incubator on campus provides space for student entrepreneurs, free consulting and the Dakota student entrepreneur loan program for student startups. Both programs are run by the Center for Innovation, which hires seniors and graduate students to work with entrepreneurs on business plans, market plans, financial projections and raising debt and equity capital. The center’s board is made up of 26 successful entrepreneurs who partner with students as mentors.

Alumni include: Ralph Engelstad, Imperial Palace Hotel and Casino, and Peter Nygard, Nygard International.

UND’s Center for Innovation

The Center for Innovation helps entrepreneurs, innovators, students and researchers launch new technologies, products and ventures, develop business and marketing plans, access debt and equity financing and access the talent of the university. The center operates the tech incubator and is constructing a second tech incubator, the Ina Mae Rude Entrepreneur Center. The center was among the first tech entrepreneur outreach centers in the nation and has helped launch more than 380 new products and ventures since it was formed in 1984. The center has won four national awards for excellence in innovation and technology entrepreneurship and is a division of the UND College of Business and Public Administration.

The Princeton Review and say that while there are more than 2,000 colleges in the United States, UND is one of only a few that “are concentrating on raising the next generation of successful entrepreneurs.”

“I’m not surprised. I recognized the entrepreneurial spirit when I first came to UND in 1999. There are so many excellent examples, such as the John D. Odegard School of Aerospace Sciences, which has trained pilots from all over the United States and the world and trained all of Norway’s air traffic controllers, and the Energy and Environmental Research Center, which does tens of millions of dollars worth of research and business every year with corporations and government entities in nearly every state and nearly 50 countries. There is a very real entrepreneurial spirit that is pervasive throughout this campus,” said President Charles E. Kupchella.

“The University of North Dakota’s ranking of 14th in The Princeton Review’s top 25 most entrepreneurial colleges is well deserved. UND is a leader in helping foster entrepreneurship and producing tomorrow’s entrepreneurs in aerospace science, medicine, and energy. I congratulate them and applaud their continuing commitment to build on that leadership,” said North Dakota Governor John Hoeven.

“Clearly our best years are ahead of us as more entrepreneurs, our state, and more alumni see the value of this investment in entrepreneurship which is the foundation of our future economy,” said Bruce Gjovig, director, Center for Innovation.


Center for Rural Health named one of five federally designated rural health research centers

The Center for Rural Health (CRH) has been co-designated, with the University of Minnesota, one of five rural health research centers in the nation funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Rural Health Policy.

With this new national designation, the CRH and the University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center will combine their research and information dissemination expertise to undertake three national projects focusing on quality of rural health care.

Mary Wakefield, CRH director, said that, “While significant research has been conducted nationally on health care quality in urban health settings, far less attention has focused on rural health care quality. This federal award allows us to build a clearer understanding of the factors that influence health care quality in rural settings.
The results of these studies should be useful to health care providers, purchasers of health care, as well as public policy-makers, including the federal government.”

“It’s important that health care research pay attention to the needs of rural America, and this federal recognition and grant will help the UND Center for Rural Health expand its valuable work,” said U.S. Sen. Byron Dorgan. “This action adds to the Red River Valley Research Corridor and will add to our understanding of rural health care and how to make it better.”

The research will focus on issues around health professional staffing, patient safety, in particular medication errors, and provision of financial incentives for improving care. Both UND and the University of Minnesota Centers have substantial rural health research experience and the grant will enable researchers from both schools to work closely together.

The CRH will take the lead in disseminating the findings of the studies.
The grant from the Office of Rural Health Policy in the federal Department of Health and Human Services will bring $500,000 to the CRH over the next four years.

— Center for Rural Health.

U community will receive copies of president’s address

President Kupchella’s “State of the University” address, presented at the Oct. 13 meeting of the University Council, will be placed online and mailed to all members of the University community.

Fraternity holds food drive

Lambda Chi Alpha fraternity will conduct their 12th annual North American food drive Wednesday, Thursday, and Saturday, Oct. 27, 28, and 30.

In the past, the drive has yielded13,000 to 15,000 pounds of food for the Grand Forks Food Cupboard. Our goal this year is to collect over 16,000 pounds of food to feed the hungry. On the national fraternity level, we will be collecting over two million pounds of food. This event is considered the largest single day philanthropy in the nation (the single day being the day we collect the food). We hope to distribute over 10,000 food bags to local homeowners on Wednesday and Thursday from 6 to 10 p.m. We will then collect the food bags on Saturday morning, beginning at 9 a.m.

We will receive help from the seven sororities at UND and any other volunteers who would like to help. We would like to thank Shea’s Nursery, Cole’s Paper, Target, Schoen Associates, and Best Buy for their assistance.

– Jan Orvik, editor, for Kevin Till, Lambda Chi Alpha fraternity.


Anthropology hosts Halloween open house

Students, faculty and staff are cordially invited to the anthropology Halloween open house, hosted by the Forensic Science Club. Come travel our haunted maze ($1 admission), sample sweets and treats, challenge your hand-eye coordination, or compete in the pumpkin carving contest (please bring your own carved pumpkin!). We’re open from noon to 5 p.m. Friday, Oct. 29.

– Anthropology.


Biology seminar set for Oct. 29

The biology department will hold a seminar Friday, Oct. 29, at noon in 141 Starcher Hall. Susan Weller will present “Evolution of Courtship and Defense Behaviors in Tiger Moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae).” She is an associate professor of entomology and a curator of Lepidoptera at the James F. Bell Museum of Natural History, University of Minnesota, whose research involves the evolution of Lepidoptera, particularly tiger moths, cutworms, and their relatives.

– Biology department.


Alerus features Chicago-style stand-up comedy

The Alerus Center will present Chicago-style stand-up comedy Friday, Oct. 29, at 8 p.m. in the Alerus Center Ballroom. Tickets, $13 in advance and $18 day of show, are available at the Alerus Center box office, all TicketMaster locations at 772-5151, or online at Wear a Halloween costume and receive one free beverage coupon. Appetizers will be served. The best costume wins a suite for the UND vs. South Dakota football game Nov. 6.

– Jan Orvik, editor, for Alerus Center.


AAUW used book sale is Oct. 29, 30

The American Association of University Women (AAUW) used book sale will be held at the Grand Cities Mall Friday, Oct. 29, from 10 a.m. to 7 p.m. and Saturday, Oct. 30, from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. Proceeds go to scholarships.

— Dianne Stam (University Learning Center), for AAUW.


North Dakota Museum of Art to hold live art auction

The North Dakota Museum of Art will hold its sixth annual autumn art auction Saturday, Oct. 30. The evening begins at 6:30 p.m. with music by Jazz on Tap and appetizers donated by the Bronze Boot, Green Mill, Whitey’s, the Museum Café, and the Blue Moose. The live auction starts at 8 p.m. Tickets are $25 in advance and $30 at the door.
Museum Director Laurel Reuter commented that “with this auction we have chosen to bet on our audience by including several large paintings priced at the high end of our market. That gives patrons a range of art objects from $150 to $7,000. She pointed out that one of the top prices in last year’s auction, Alec Soth’s photograph of a houseboat on the Mississippi, was $1,250 and is now worth five times that amount.

The 37 pieces of art are now on display at the Museum and online at or may be viewed in the catalog. They range from woven Indian baskets to abstract works to traditional oil paintings. They will be auctioned by Burton Onofrio, who has run art auctions for 26 years in Rochester, Minn.

Absentee bidding is possible by mail or telephone. Call the Museum at 777-4195 to order tickets ($25 in advance, $30 at the door), receive an auction catalog, or register for absentee bidding. The ticket price includes wine and hors d’oeuvres beginning at 6:30 p.m.

Reuter will preview the works and lead an informal discussion about them and their creators on Thursday, Oct. 28, at 7 p.m. This event is free and open to the public.

The auction is underwritten by High Plains Reader, KVLY/TV and KXJB/TV, Leighton Broadcasting, Marshall Field’s and North Dakota Public Radio. The exhibition is funded in part by a general operating grant from the Bush Foundation.

The Museum is located on Centennial Drive in Grand Forks. Hours are 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. weekdays and 11 a.m. to 5 p.m. weekends. Call 777-4195 for information on current exhibitions, the Museum Café, or the Museum Gift Shop.

– North Dakota Museum of Art.


Grand Forks Symphony will present Halloween pops concert

The Greater Grand Forks Symphony Orchestra will perform its October concert, “Halloween Pops,” at the Empire Arts Center in downtown Grand Forks at 7:30 p.m. Saturday, Oct. 30, and at 2 p.m. Sunday, Oct. 31. This is the second of five concerts in the 2004-2005 “Soundscapes” season. Children 12 and under are encouraged to attend the Sunday matinee and participate in the costume parade and contest. Be sure to reserve your seats; tickets are available by calling 777-4090.

The concert features guest artist Sara Davis Buechner, piano, in the film score to Hitchcock’s 1945 psychological thriller, “Spellbound,” and during a screening of two classic 1920s silent cartoons: “Felix in Hollywood” with Felix the Cat, and “Koko’s Earth Control.” Around the world, her stellar performances garner praise from audiences and critics alike. The Washington Post states, “Buechner’s performance had a beauty that might have taken even Mozart’s breath away.” Known for her entertaining, as well as musical, performances, Ms. Buechner has composed and commissioned the music for two silent cartoons. These selections are sure to delight children of all ages.

Movie fans will also enjoy orchestra suites from “Harry Potter: Chamber of Secrets” and “Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers.” The “Harry Potter Suite,” by John Williams, presents the themes of new characters in this movie: playful Dobby the House Elf, soaring Fawkes the Phoenix, and the Gilderoy Lockhart theme. Potter fans will recognize these delightful tunes from their favorite movie moments. The “Lord of the Rings Suite,” by Canadian composer Howard Leslie Shore, tells the story of The Two Towers through music and melody. Themes from the first and second movie intertwine in Rohan, the march of the Ents, Gollum’s song, and several other movements.

Costumes are encouraged (but not mandatory!) at the Saturday evening performance.
The Sunday matinee features a costume contest for children 12 and under. Come at 1:15 p.m. to register for the contest and hear a pre-concert talk by Christopher Anderson. Costumes will be judged at intermission, and treats are available for all.

For more information, call the Symphony office at 777-3359 or check the GGFSO web site at


Master Chorale season starts with “Saints & Sinners” concert Sunday, Oct. 31

The Grand Forks Master Chorale will kick off its 22nd season on Halloween with a “Saints & Sinners” concert Sunday, Oct. 31, 7:30 p.m. at Wesley United Methodist Church, 1600 Fourth Ave. N. Advance tickets at reduced rates are available at the Chester Fritz Auditorium Box Office: $12 for general audience, $8 for senior citizens, and $5 for students. At the door, tickets are $15 for general audience, $10 for senior citizens and $7 for students.

Michael Weber, Master Chorale artistic director and conductor, said “The Saints & Sinners program evolved more from the sacred, rather than the secular celebrations of the season. Although Sunday is Halloween, this is also the anniversary of the Reformation. One of the best ways to commemorate this occasion is through the music of arguably the finest composer of music for the Lutheran church-J. S. Bach.” The Master Chorale will perform “Gottes zeit ist die allerbeste zeit” with a small orchestra.

“The text, which consists of passages from the Bible and a chorale, presents the Christian view of dying and the affirming belief in the resurrection of the dead and the everlasting Kingdom of Heaven. The text is also suitable for the feast of All Souls, which is celebrated on Nov. 2,” said Weber.

The Master Chorale will also perform two works by Ralph Vaughan Williams, “Lord, Thou Hast Been Our Refuge” and “Sine Nomine.” Also planned are “In Remembrance” by Eleanor Daley; “Saints Bound for Heaven”; “Amor de mi alma” by Z. Randall Stroope; “O My Luve’s Like a Red, Red Rose” by Rene Clausen; “Some little Snow” by Daniel Pederson, a tenor with the group who was commissioned by the Grand Forks Master Chorale to write this piece, which describes some of the visual images of North Dakota during the stay of Lewis and Clark during the fall of 1804; “Sinner Man”; “Deep River”; and “Ride On King Jesus.”

Founded in 1983, the Grand Forks Master Chorale members include: Michael J. Weber, conductor and artistic director; Lynn Liepold, accompanist; Peter Johnson, development director. Singers, including some faculty, staff and students at UND, include: SOPRANO: Diane Beirwagen, Elizabeth Comeau, Kathryn Fiedler, Catherine Fleming, Kelli Flermoen, Valerie Jensen, Katie Kringstad, Lori Peterson, Cheryl Saunders, Christina Tello, Kari Torkelson, Kathryn Webster. ALTO: Shelley Bares, Kellie Burgess, Amy Erickson, Carol Geiszler, Jody Heigaard, Laurel Johnson, Marsha Johnson, Stephanie Korver, Patti Medal, Wendy S. Swerdlow, Alyssa Zimmer. TENOR: Marc Arnason, David Biberdorf, Wallace Bloom, Christopher Hunt, Jon Jackson, Daniel Pederson, Jeff Tilley. BASS: Harmon Abrahamson, Matthew Carpenter, Blake Evert, Ron Fossell, Lyndon Johnson, David Kary, Michael McCullough, Joseph Olson.

— Grand Forks Master Chorale.


U2 lists November workshops

Below are U2 workshops for November 8-22. Visit our web site for additional workshops in October and November. Please reserve your seat by registering with U2 by phone, 777-2128; e-mail,; or online, Please include workshop title and date, name, department, position, box number, phone number, e-mail address, and how you first learned of the workshop. Thank you for registering in advance; it helps us plan for materials and number of seats.

Excel XP, Advanced: Nov. 8 and 10, 9 a.m. to noon, 361 Upson II (six hours total). Prerequisite: Excel Intermediate. Customize, link, share and protect workbooks, work with multiple data sources, enhance charts, work with Excel graphics. Presenter: Maria Saucedo.

HTML, Creating a Web Page Using HTML: Nov. 8 and 10, 1 to 3:30 p.m., 361 Upson II (five hours total). Learn how to create a web page with Hyper-Text Markup Language, graphics, and links. Presenter: Doris Bornhoeft.
Hiring Procedures and the Termination Process: Nov. 9, 9 to 11 a.m., 305 Twamley Hall. Learn what constitutes a legal hire as well as a legal termination of an employee. Presenter: Joy Johnson and Desi Sporbert.

Bloodborne Pathogens: Nov. 9, 10 to 11:30 a.m., Conference Room, Auxiliary Services. Because of the increase in hepatitis and HIV cases in the past decade, it is important that persons who work around potentially infectious materials know how to protect themselves. This workshop will provide information on bloodborne pathogens, and how risks of exposure can be reduced. Presenter: Claire Moen.

Retirement Distribution Flexibilities: Nov. 10, 10 a.m. to noon, River Valley Room, Memorial Union. For individuals who are three-to-five years away from retirement. Developing a sound financial strategy for retirement can make a big difference. Now is the time to get answers to some important questions and begin planning. Presenter: Molly Melanson Perry, TIAA-CREF.

Word XP, Advanced: Nov. 15, 17, and 19, 9 a.m. to noon, 361 Upson II (nine hours total). Prerequisite: Word Intermediate. Create a form, automate tasks with macros, use reference document features, use publication features, revise documents, explore web and HTML interface. Presenter: Maria Saucedo.
Defensive Driving: Nov. 16, 8:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m., 16-18 Swanson Hall. This workshop is required by state fleet for all UND employees who drive state vehicles on a regular (monthly) basis, received a traffic violation, or had an accident while operating a state vehicle. Employees are encouraged to bring a family member. This workshop may also reduce your North Dakota insurance premiums and could possibly remove points from your driving record. Presenter: Greg Krause.

Excel XP, Beginning: Nov. 16 and 18, 1 to 4 p.m., 361 Upson II (six hours total). Learn Excel basics, edit worksheets, perform calculations, format worksheets, work with multiple worksheets, create and modify charts, set display and print options. Presenter: Maria Saucedo.

Inventory Control, Property Insurance and Surplus Property Procedures: Nov. 18, 9 to 11 a.m., River Valley Room, Memorial Union. Discuss insurance coverage of equipment, procedure for equipment transfers, deletions, completing annual inventory audit, and procedures for disposing and selling University property. Presenters: Christine Cavanaugh, Jackie Brockling, and Corrinne Kjelstrom.

DMP Protocol and Work Force Safety (Workers Compensation): Nov. 22, 9 to 10 a.m., 16-18 Swanson Hall. Change in Workers Compensation policy. The designated medical provider guidelines are part of the ND state risk management program with work force safety (workers compensation). It is important for employees to have a clear understanding of these policies if they suffer a work-related injury. The class is also an excellent opportunity for supervisors to become more familiar with the policy. The UND safety director and work force safety coordinator will make the presentation and be available for questions following. Presenters: Claire Moen and Jason Uhlir.

— Julie Sturges, U2 program.


Graduate committee meets Monday

The graduate committee will meet Monday, Nov. 1, at 3:05 p.m. in 305 Twamley Hall. The agenda follows.

1. Approval of minutes from Oct. 11 and Oct. 25.

2. Request for course changes and new course requests in linguistics including:
a. Linguistics 506, Field Methods, change course description and prerequisite.
b. Linguistics 520, Foundational Issues of Community-Based Literacy in Multilingual Societies, change course description and co-requisites.
c. Linguistics 521, Literacy Program Planning and Management; change in course description and co-requisites.
d. Linguistics 522, Materials and Methods in Literacy, change course description and co-requisites.
e. Request for new course: Linguistics 511, Translation of Texts: Theory and Practice.
f. Request for new course: Linguistics 519, Introduction to Literacy Principles.
g. Request for new course: Linguistics 530, Introduction to Writing Systems.

3. Announcement : Transitional master’s of occupational therapy program has been forwarded as a stage two proposal. No action needed — for information purposes.

4. Student appeal to begin at 4 p.m.

— Joseph Benoit, graduate dean.


Creating cognitive dissonance is On Teaching topic

“Creating Cognitive Dissonance” is the topic of the next On Teaching lunch Tuesday, Nov. 2, from 12:30 to 1:30 p.m. in the Memorial Room of the Union. Marcia Mikulak (anthropology) and Vicki Ross (teaching and learning) will introduce the session by discussing the importance of cognitive dissonance for their own students, and describing assignments that attempt to produce cognitive dissonance as a means of breaking through pre-conceptions and reaching a deeper level of learning. Lunch will be provided by OID for those who sign up by noon Friday, Oct. 29. If you are interesting in attending, please call 777-4998 or e-mail

— Joan Hawthorne, University writing program.


November 2 reception will honor Chad Sperling

A farewell reception for Chad Sperling, web designer for University Relations, is set for 2:30 to 4 p.m. Tuesday, Nov. 2, in the front reception area of University Relations, 411 Twamley Hall. Sperling, who has been with the University since 2002, has accepted a position outside the University. Please join us as we wish him well.

– Jan Orvik, web manager, University Relations.


Reception will honor Frenchy Cloutier

A reception in honor of Frenchy (Wilfred) Cloutier will be held Wednesday, Nov. 3, from 2:30 to 4:30 p.m. in the James C. Ray Flight Line building, Flight Operations, at the Airport. Frenchy, as he is known, began working for the aerospace flight line on March 28, 1988. For 17 years he has dedicated his gifts, talents, and efforts to the John D. Odegard School of Aerospace Sciences. Please join us in thanking him for his service to aerospace and in wishing him a happy retirement.

– Christine Naas, special events, aerospace dean’s office.


Midwest Selenium Symposium will be held in Grand Forks

“Selenium-Enriched Foods: Science, Production, Marketing Issues and Challenges” will bring together leaders and experts from across the country to share their research and discuss one of the most promising developments in the area of functional foods. The symposium, Wednesday and Thursday, Nov. 3 and 4, at the Ramada Inn in Grand Forks, will be hosted by UND, NDSU, and the USDA-ARS Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center.

The publication of a cancer trial in 1996 that showed selenium supplements dramatically decreased the risk of certain cancers has fueled interest in the development of functional foods enhanced in selenium. The Northern Plains area of the United States contains soils with some of the highest concentrations of selenium to be found in North America, and that makes this region uniquely situated to produce selenium-enhanced foods. Many food industries, primarily supplement manufacturers, have already begun marketing selenium-enriched products, and two provisional health claims have been allowed for these products.

There are opportunities and problems in development of selenium-enriched foods. For this two-day symposium, leaders in research, industry and agricultural production will explore the current state of the science behind the production and health benefits of foods enriched in selenium, as well as examine ideas for marketing selenium-enriched foods.

Pre-register for $25; $35 at the door. For more information about this event, please call 795-8300 or go online at

- Brenda Ling, Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center.


Wagner seminar includes Ring showing

The Department of Music’s seminar on “Richard Wagner and Wagnerism” will sponsor a complete showing of Wagner’s Der Ring des Nibelungen (with English subtitles) in a performance by the Metropolitan Opera with James Levine. The two remaining presentations in the Ring series will be shown in the Campbell Recital Hall, Hughes Fine Arts Center, on these Wednesdays: Nov. 3 (Siegfried), and Nov. 17 (Götterdämmerung). All showings begin at 4:30 p.m. Admission is free.

– Christopher Anderson, music.


Agenda listed for Nov. 4 University senate meeting

The University senate will meet Thursday, Nov. 4, at 4:05 p.m. in Room 7, Gamble Hall.


1. Announcements.

2. Minutes of the previous meeting and business arising from the minutes.

3. Question period.


4. Annual report of the honorary degrees committee (2002-03 and 2003-04), Kathy Sukalski and Diane Helgeson, chairs.

5. Annual report of the student policy committee, Bradley Rundquist, chair.

6. Annual report of the honors committee, Tami Carmichael, chair.

7. Annual report of the general education requirements committee, Tom Steen, chair.


8. Report from the curriculum committee, Doug Marshall, chair.

9. Proposed changes to State Board of Higher Education policies, Tom Petros, council of college faculties.

— Nancy Krogh (registrar), secretary, University senate.


Value of the arts is topic of discussion

The North Valley Arts Council (NoVAC) will present Lunch with the Arts, featuring a discussion on the value of the arts to regional economic and cultural development, led by Hal Gershman. It is set for noon Thursday, Nov. 4, at the Chester Fritz Auditorium. Cost is $5, with lunch included. Registration is required; call 777-6120 by Monday, Nov. 1.
Please join us for this informative discussion and exciting networking opportunity.

– Nicole Derenne, administrative coordinator, North Valley Arts Council, 777-6120.


“Friends Don’t Let Friends Rape” program set for Nov. 4

“Friends Don’t Let Friends Rape,” a presentation by Tom Erickson, is set for Thursday, Nov. 4, at 7 p.m. in the Memorial Union Lecture Bowl.

Rape hurts women and men alike. Learn what men and women can do to end violence against women. Tom Erickson is active in Men as Allies Against Non-Violence. He also serves as a volunteer crisis line advocate and IMPACT instructor, teaching self-defense and empowerment classes for women, teens and children.
For information, contact me at 777-9003.

– Janet Sundquist, campus violence intervention advocate.


Vegetarian supper club features meatless casseroles

The Vegetarian Supper Club will meet at 6:30 p.m. Thursday, Nov. 4, at Seventh-Day Adventist Church, 3610 Cherry St. Bring a dish and share your recipes. Don’t know what to bring? Just come to enjoy the company and sample something new.

In order to accommodate the stricter vegetarians, recipes should not contain meat, poultry, fish, eggs, or dairy.

The theme is meatless casseroles that your family will love. Please RSVP with number of people attending at (701) 741-0379.

– Brenna Kerr, dietitian, student health and wellness center,


Speaker will discuss tribal bison ranching

Indian studies presents “Contemporary Tribal Bison Ranching: A Case Study from the Northern Plains,” 3:30 p.m. Thursday, Nov. 10, in 300 Merrifield Hall. Sebastian Braun, visiting assistant professor of Indian studies, will present.
Since the early 1990s, many tribes have begun to build bison herds. These bison operations were started not only as locally controlled development projects, but also to revive certain aspects of the traditional cultures connected to bison. The renewed presence of the animals on reservations was to re-affirm a spiritual bond between two related nations. Through this renewal, it was hoped, traditional social and cultural values of respect and responsibility would come to flower again in reservation communities. Bison meat would be available at affordable prices for elders and those affected by diabetes. Ecological knowledge would be regained and transmitted through future generations. This lecture will look at tribal bison ranching through a case study from South Dakota, and trace the emergence of a major voice in reservation and Plains agricultural policy. Tribal bison operations, and their umbrella organization, the InterTribal Bison Cooperative, as well as non-Indian bison ranchers and the North American Bison Cooperative are trying to build a market large enough to support their efforts at a sustainable industry. Please join us.

– Indian studies.


Seminar will consider “Microglia on the Move”

Michael Dailey, associate professor of biological sciences at the University of Iowa, will present a seminar, “Microglia on the Move: The Dynamics of Glial Cell Activation Imaged in Live Brain Tissue Slices,” at 3 p.m. Friday, Nov. 5, in 5520 Medical Science. The seminar is sponsored by the Center of Biomedical Research Excellence Pathophysiology of Neurodegenerative Disease and the Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Therapeutics.

– Pharmacology, physiology and therapeutics.


Invite students to register for professional etiquette luncheon

Faculty are asked to announce the following event to classes.

Looking for a way to polish your professional skills? Career services will host the professional dress and etiquette luncheon Saturday, Nov. 13. Attend an etiquette presentation by Bruce Gjovig in the Memorial Union Lecture Bowl from 11 a.m. to noon, followed by a four-course luncheon in the Ballroom and a style presentation by Marshall Field’s from noon to 2 p.m. The cost is only $5 per student. Register and pre-pay at 280 McCannel Hall by Tuesday, Nov. 9.

– Kim Konerza, career services events coordinator.

Singer/songwriter Syd performs Nov. 16

Pop-rock recording artist Syd will perform an evening show as part of UPC’s Fall Jam Tuesday, Nov. 16, at 7:30 p.m. at the Loading Dock, Memorial Union. There is no admission charge.

N.D. tax practitioners institutes planned

Do you need legal, insurance or accounting (CPE) continuing education hours? You’re invited to attend the North Dakota tax practitioners institutes. Visit for more detailed information and to register. They will be held Nov. 16-17 at the Holiday Inn, Fargo, and Dec. 2-3 at the Best Western Ramkota Hotel, Bismarck.

The institutes are:

  • Approved for 16 hours of continuing professional education (CPE) from the North Dakota Society of CPAs.
  • Approved for 14 hours of continuing legal education (CLE) from the State Bar Association of North Dakota

Commission for Continuing Legal Education.

  • Approved for 16 hours of insurance continuing education from the North Dakota Insurance Department.
    Attend the day most appropriate for you. Continuing education credits will be offered on a pro-rated basis.

Day one: individual and general tax practitioner issues. Featured speaker is Robert (Chris) Province, CPA, Garverick Province, LLC. He will discuss new tax legislation, individual taxpayer issues, IRS updates and issues, retirement, annual tax planning, and ethics.

Day two: agriculture and other business issues. Featured speaker is Philip E. Harris, J.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison. He will discuss business and investment issues, business entities, tax consequences of being a trade or business, taxation of natural resources, and agricultural issues.

Fees and early bird deadlines are $189 for two-day institute registration (includes luncheons), and $109 for one-day institute registration (includes luncheon).

For Fargo institute registrations received after Nov. 9 or Bismarck institute registrations received after Nov. 24, add $25 to your total fee.

Your fee includes the following:

  • Instruction from national tax experts.
  • 2004 National Income Tax Workbook published by the Land Grant University tax Education Foundation, Inc.
  • Continuing education hours (CPEs, CLEs and Insurance CE hours).
  • Supplemental handout materials.
  • Continental breakfast(s), luncheon(s), and refreshments.

To register, go to You may also print out a copy of the registration form. UND staff or faculty should attach an ID billing form to your registration and mail it to Box 9021. If you have any questions, contact the office of conference services at 777-2663. Please pass this information on to your colleagues who may be interested.

Co-sponsors are the Division of Continuing Education and the North Dakota Society of Certified Public Accountants.

— Jennifer Raymond, coordinator, conference services, continuing education.


Participants sought for panel on international experience

In observance of International Education Week, Nov. 15-19, international programs is hosting a panel discussion with faculty and staff to address the role of international experience in the current educational climate.

We invite any faculty or staff member, including UND’s international faculty, who would like to participate in the panel on Thursday, Nov. 18, from noon to 1 p.m. We ask you to share your experiences teaching or researching abroad, current internationally oriented research or initiatives, and the impact of those experiences on you professionally and the University in general.

If you are interested or would like more information, please contact Shannon Jolly,, 777-4118, by Wednesday, Nov. 3.

– International programs.


NCBI molecular resource training offered

National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) molecular resource training will be offered Thursday and Friday, Nov. 18 and 19. The NCBI presents “A Field Guide to GenBank and NCBI Molecular Biology Resources,” a lecture from 9 a.m. to noon Thursday in the Memorial Union Lecture Bowl, and hands-on computer workshop (Nov. 18 and 19) on GenBank and related databases covering effective use of the Entrez databases and search service, the BLAST similarity search engine, genome data and related resources.

The training features the NCBI assembly and annotation of human, mouse and rat genomes, the updated map viewer genome displays, the new genome-specific BLAST pages, the new NCBI curated conserved domains, and Cn3D 4.1.

For more information on this free class presented by NCBI, go to
Workshops will be held in the Karl Christian Wold Bioinformation Learning Resources Center, lower level computer lab, Room B320B, Medical Science building, Thursday and Friday.

Attendance at the lecture is a prerequisite for the hands-on workshops.

Workshop session #1: Thursday, Nov. 18, 1 to 3 p.m. (25 seats); workshop session #2: Thursday, Nov. 18, 3:15 to 5:15 p.m. (25 seats); and workshop session #3: Friday, Nov. 19, 8 to 10 a.m. (25 seats).

For more information and/or to register contact me by Friday, Nov. 11.

– Barbara Knight, Harley E. French Library of the Health Sciences,


Family medicine clinics change names

An ad campaign has been launched to announce the new name of the clinics in Bismarck, Minot and Grand Forks where the School of Medicine and Health Sciences trains family doctors.

Each of the clinics is now called the Center for Family Medicine, followed by the name of the city, such as Center for Family Medicine – Grand Forks, and features a newly designed logo. These clinics have been known as the UND Family Practice Center in Bismarck and Grand Forks and the Minot Center for Family Medicine.

The new name is accompanied by a logo which is meant to reflect the centers’ role in providing health care services to North Dakotans. New signs are expected to go up at the centers as soon as they are completed.

Newspaper, radio and yellow-page advertising in the three cities is designed to promote awareness and a positive image among current and prospective patients. Television ads begin airing next month.

At these centers, experienced physicians educate and train resident-physicians who are pursuing family medicine as their career choice. In each city, usually five or six residents train in each level of the three-year training program. They work with and learn from faculty at the center as well as many other practicing physicians in their community.

“Our physicians and staff provide excellent patient care in their communities,” said H. David Wilson, vice president for health affairs and dean of the medical school at UND. “We want everyone, in and around those communities, to know that they are welcome as patients, and that they will receive a full array of high quality services in an efficient and timely manner, even same-day services, if needed.”

The UND family practice centers were started in the mid-1970s when the UND medical school began to build its complete four-year, Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) degree-granting program and postgraduate residency training programs to prepare physicians for practice in family medicine, as well as internal medicine, psychiatry and other fields.

— School of Medicine and Health Sciences.


EERC presents award to Sen. Dorgan

The Energy & Environmental Research Center presented U.S. Sen. Byron Dorgan the eighth Energy Champion Award Oct. 21.

The EERC Energy Champion Award was created to honor individuals who have demonstrated extraordinary leadership, vision, and personal commitment to energy and environmental research, development, and demonstration programs across the nation. The award is only given to those who are particularly deserving; the last Energy Champion Award was presented eight years ago.

Dorgan received the award for his vision and tremendous commitment to the ongoing development of a wide range of clean, efficient energy technologies and for his recognition of the EERC’s role in the future of those initiatives.

“Sen. Dorgan has been a champion for the EERC for many years and has secured funding to drive the strategic research and development needed to achieve energy security for our nation while protecting the environment,” said EERC Director Gerald Groenewold. “His commitment to energy security is underscored by his belief that energy independence will result from the development of strategic, innovative, and environmentally friendly concepts including clean coal, oil, gas, wind, biomass, hydrogen, and oxygenated fuels.”

Sen. Dorgan has used his seniority on the Senate appropriations committee to secure strategic investments in the EERC, all of which are leveraged with private sector funding. For example, in 2004, Dorgan championed the EERC’s designation as the National Center for Hydrogen Technology.

Dorgan received his Bachelor of Science degree from the University in 1965 and went on to earn his MBA from the University of Denver.

Past Energy Champion Award recipients include U.S. Sen. Mark Andrews in 1986, Conrad Aas in 1987, John MacFarlane in 1990, U.S. Sen. Kent Conrad in 1992, Thomas Clifford in 1993, Everett Sondreal in 1995, and Thomas Bechtel in 1996.

— Energy and Environmental Research Center.


Wakefield elected to Institute of Medicine

Mary Wakefield, director of the Center for Rural Health, has been elected to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies.

The only member in North Dakota, Wakefield is one of 65 new members announced this week, raising the Institute’s total active membership to 1,416. Current active members elect new members from among candidates nominated for their professional achievement and commitment to service.

The IOM was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to be an adviser on scientific and technology matters. Most of its work is requested by U.S. government agencies. The IOM provides unbiased advice on health issues based on evidence and grounded in science. Election is considered one of the highest honors in the fields of medicine and health.

“We are extremely proud of Dr. Wakefield,” said H. David Wilson, vice president for health affairs and dean of the medical school. “This is another indication of just how talented she is, and how respected her work is nationally.
“As the only IOM member from this state, Dr. Wakefield serves North Dakota proud,” he continued. “She is also serving the region, since there are currently no IOM members in Montana or South Dakota.”

Wakefield, a registered nurse, has been director of the Center for Rural Health since November 2001. Originally from Devils Lake, she spent many years in Washington, D.C., working in the political and academic arenas specializing in health policy, especially recruitment and retention of health care providers, reimbursement, emergency services, telemedicine, and health care quality. Wakefield has presented nationally and internationally on public policy and strategies to influence the policy making and political process.

– Center for Rural Health.


Proposals sought for student technology fee monies

The student technology fee committee is seeking proposals for spring 2005 technology fee dollars.
The committee will make recommendations on proposals based on the following:

  • Student benefit
  • Innovation
  • Impact on the curriculum and/or on researc
  • How does this project address your unit’s strategic plan?
  • Dean’s rankin
  • Number of students served
  • Disciplines served
  • Level of support
  • Access for equipment
  • Technical support
  • Matching funds from the department/unit
  • Technology available for redeployment

PLEASE NOTE: All proposals must be submitted using the spring 2005 (053) STF request form. Forms may be accessed at, or request one via e-mail from Kim Pastir at Departments/units should submit the proposals to their deans or directors for review and prioritization. Units which answer directly to vice presidents should submit proposals to them for review and prioritization. Vice presidents, deans and directors may have earlier deadlines.

The deadline to submit proposals to the student technology committee at Campus Box 9021 is Monday, Nov. 15.

Proposal writers must consult with the various support offices on campus for costs associated with installation of equipment, accessibility issues, security concerns and adaptive technology. Unless departments are prepared to pay for these out of their own budgets, proposal writers should obtain estimates and include them as a part of the budget for the proposal. In addition, proposal writers must consult with disability support services regarding adaptive technology needed for the proposal and with the Center for Instructional and Learning Technologies regarding the equipment requested for compatibility, installation issues, and ensuing issues.

If you have any questions or concerns regarding the proposal process, please contact Kim at 777-3231.

– Jim Shaeffer, chief information officer.


Insurance covers University-sponsored student field trips

The University and its employees are protected by the risk management fund for negligent acts or omissions of employees, within the scope of their employment, that result in damage to personal property, injury, or death. Employees are covered by this policy while accompanying students on field trips.

In addition to this coverage, the University purchases a travel accident policy for students participating in University-sponsored field trips. The cost is funded by the vice president for finance and operations. This policy provides the following insurance coverage to students:

1) Accident medical expense – maximum benefit is $1,000 per person.

2) Accidental death and dismemberment – principal sum of $10,000.

This policy provides coverage for any accident that is not caused by actions of the University or its employees. Example: A student falls and breaks his leg on a field trip in Minneapolis.

The travel accident coverage is only provided to those students whose department has submitted a student field trip report prior to the date of the field trip. All departments are strongly encouraged to provide this coverage for their students. The student field trip form may be retrieved online at Please dispose of all old student field trip forms. The completed form should be submitted to safety and environmental health, Box 9031.

If you have any questions or concerns regarding this insurance coverage, please call our office at 777-3341.

– Safety and environmental health.


2005 Founders Day honorees sought

The 2005 Founders Day banquet and ceremony will be held Thursday, Feb. 24. This celebration will mark the 122nd anniversary of the founding of the University of North Dakota.
Employees with 25 years of service and retiring faculty and staff employees will be honored at the banquet as guests of the University. We request the assistance of all administrators, vice presidents, deans, department chairs, office heads, and other supervisors in identifying eligible employees.

To prepare for Founders Day 2005, we request the following information:

1. Names of faculty and staff members who have completed 25 years of service to UND. To be honored, individuals must have completed 25 years of service since July 1, 2004, or will complete it by June 30, 2005. (In most cases, these people would have begun their employment at UND between July 1, 1979, and June 30, 1980.)
Please note that individuals eligible for 25-year recognition whose service at UND has not been continuous may have begun their employment prior to July 1, 1979.

Recognition for 25 years of service is given to all benefited employees, even though they may not be employed on a full-time basis. Please include names of benefited, part-time employees who will complete 25 years of service between July 1, 2004 and June 30, 2005.

2. Names of retired and retiring faculty and staff. To be honored, individuals must:

a. have retired since July 1, 2004, or will retire by June 30, 2005;

b. have a minimum of 15 years of service to the University;

c. be (or have been) full-time employees or in a benefited, part-time position at the time of retirement (or be completing an approved “phased” retirement); and

d. be making application for or receiving benefits through a UND-related retirement plan.

It is important that your list of eligible employees includes the following information:

  • name of the employee
  • position/faculty rank currently held
  • department or unit
  • initial appointment date
  • mailing address and e-mail address
  • dates of any breaks in service (please identify whether these breaks in service were compensated, such as a developmental leave or a leave of absence without compensation)
  • date of retirement (if applicable

Please submit the names of eligible individuals and supporting information to Terri Machart in the Office of the Vice President for Student and Outreach Services, Box 7140, by Friday, Nov. 19. Please call 777-2724 with any questions about employee eligibility or about the Founders Day banquet.

— Fred Wittmann, director of ceremonies and special events, Office of the Vice President for Student and Outreach Services.


FIDC awardees named

The following faculty members were awarded faculty instructional development committee (FIDC) grants in July, August and September:

July: Daniel Erickson (languages), first year Latin videos, $400; Duane Halbur (counseling), counseling clinic instructional supplies, $1,161; Barbara Handy-Marchello (history), Mountain Plains Museum Association Conference, $284; Don Miller (art), kiln building course, $582.

August: Luke Huang (technology), ProModel Conference, $411.39; Craig Silvernagel (entrepreneurship), the experiential classroom V workshop, $750.

September: Bonni Gourneau (teaching and learning), social studies teachers editions, $405; Richard Josephs (geology and geological engineering), 48 soil thin sections, $1,344; Kimberly Porter (history), Oral History Association annual meeting, $750.

FIDC grant proposals may be used to purchase instructional materials, travel to teaching-related conferences, or other projects related to teaching. To submit a proposal, call the Office of Instructional Development (OID) for guidelines and materials or find the necessary information on the OID web site (listed under “Academics” on the UND home page,

Proposals may be submitted at any time during the academic year and are reviewed on a monthly basis by the FIDC. Next deadline is Monday, Nov. 15, at noon.

Instructional or professional development projects that fall outside FIDC guidelines may qualify for funding through OID’s flexible grant program. For further information, or to discuss ideas and drafts before submitting a final proposal, contact me.

– Libby Rankin, director, instructional development, 777-3325,


Open enrollment in NDPERS insurance plans ends Nov. 15

Open enrollment for employees in the NDPERS health, life, dental, vision, and long-term care insurance plans is available through Nov. 15.

Complete information and necessary forms are available on the NDPERS web page at (click on “Annual Enrollment”), or contact the UND Payroll Office. Change forms must be received in the payroll office by Monday, Nov. 15.

NDPERS has announced increases in dental insurance premiums. Employee rates will increase from $29.64 to $32.56 per month, employee plus spouse rates will increase from $57.09 to $62.70 per month, employee plus children rates will increase from $66.45 to $73.02 per month, and family rates will increase from $93.90 to $103.20 per month.
Life and long-term care coverage are subject to medical underwriting approval. Premium deductions will be withheld after approval of coverage.

Health, dental, and vision coverage will be effective Jan. 1, 2005; dental and vision premiums will be withheld from December paychecks. Any plan-specific questions should be directed to NDPERS at 1-800-803-7377.

– Payroll Office.


Please add additions or changes to 2004-2005 directory

Following is a list of faculty/staff who were either not included in the 2004-2005 student, faculty, and staff directory or have changes in their information.

The first column lists the person’s name, spouse, title, department, post office box number, home address and electronic mail address; the second column lists the UND building and room number; next column, office phone number (top) and personal extension phone number (bottom); the last column lists the home phone number. This data was provided by each faculty and staff person. See complete directory, page 47, for list of building abbreviations.

CHRISTOPHERSON, Anne HFAC-224 777-2646 792-2969
Assistant Professor of Voice, 777-2835
Music (Box 7125)
3504 11th Ave N, #23, Grand Forks, ND 58203

DARDEN, Silas V. HSC-122 777-6477
Graduate Assistant, Media
Relations, Athletics (Box 9013)
4 Manitoba Ave., Grand Forks, ND 58203

EINARSON, Einar (Elaine) HFAC-130 777-2816 775-9805
Brass Instructor, Music (Box 7125)
911 Hillcrest Ave., Grand Forks, ND 58201

HELLAND, Neal G. MU-Terrace 777-3940
Dishroom Manager, Dining Services

LAWSON, Eric HFAC-276 777-2644 777-9431
Assistant Professor, 777-2826
Music (Box 7125)
715 N 40th St, #206-J, Grand Forks, ND 58203

MILBURN, Lonna (Mike) (701)260-0625
Associate Professor, College of Nursing (701)227-0625
10675 35th St SW, Dickinson, ND 58601

MUTCHER, Theresa MU-Terrace 777-3940 775-2160 (Robert Sr.)
Food Service Worker I,
Dining Services
1314 8th Ave N, Grand Forks, ND 58203-0751

STEADMAN, Edward N EERC 777-5279
Senior Research Advisor, Energy 777-5279
& Environmental Research Center (814) 397-9957
15 N 23rd St, Grand Forks, ND 58203


FlexComp enrollments due Nov. 30

The FlexComp open enrollment period for the plan year of Jan. 1, 2005, through Dec. 31, 2005, is here. During this time all benefited employees will have the opportunity to enroll or re-enroll in this fringe benefit opportunity. This program helps employees pay for medical and dependent care expenses with pre-tax dollars instead of after-tax dollars.

Enrollment agreements must be returned to the payroll office by Tuesday, Nov. 30. No enrollment agreements will be accepted after 4:30 p.m. that day.

No exceptions will be made for mail delays; if the deadline date is approaching, it is advised that you hand-deliver your form directly to the payroll office to assure it is received on time.

If you misplaced your original enrollment form which was mailed to you Oct. 18, you may pick one up at 314 Twamley Hall or print one from the payroll web page at Click on forms.
If you have any questions, call me.

– Heidi Strande, payroll office FlexComp specialist, 777-4423.


Applications accepted for Holiday Art & Craft Fair

Applications are now being accepted for exhibitors in the 26th Annual Holiday Art & Craft Fair Friday, Dec. 3, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. at the Memorial Union Ballroom. Original hand-crafted work is eligible. Students are encouraged to participate. Application deadline is Wednesday, Nov. 10, or until spaces are filled. For an application form and further information, please call 777-3979 or e-mail The application form is also available online at The Art & Craft Fair is sponsored by the University craft center and the Memorial Union.

— Bonnie Solberg, Memorial Union.


Photo contest spotlights campus

The good, the bad, the ugly and the pretty pictures of the University of North Dakota campus can be submitted for a photography contest hosted by UND’s Graphics and Photography Society. Contest submissions are due Monday, Nov. 15.

Photos considered for judging must be taken on the University of North Dakota campus in 2004. “We want to see that UND life really looks like 24 hours, seven days a week,” said Lynda Kenney (technology) who advises the Graphics and Photography Society.

Winners in each category will be awarded prizes, and the photos will be displayed at a Memorial Union exhibition. Three different categories, digital, black and white film, and color film are available. There is no limit on the number of photos for submission. Photographs must not have been previously published.

The contest is free and open to all. Submissions should be “8x10” prints and should not be framed or mounted. Photographers are responsible for gaining the consent of subjects for public display.

Photographs will be judged on content expression, composition elements, and technical quality. Photos should be turned in to the technology department in 235-B Starcher Hall.

For more information and a complete set of official rules, contact me.

– Lynda Kenney, technology, 777-2197, or David Dew, (701) 330-1051.


Studio One lists features

Name recognition and money are two of the obstacles political challengers deal with in an election. We’ll explore this issue on the next edition of Studio One on Channel 3 in Grand Forks. In the North Dakota Congressional race, Mike Liffrig faces off against incumbent Sen. Byron Dorgan. In most elections, a large majority of incumbents are reelected. We’ll learn how challengers like Liffrig are trying to overcome their disadvantages in the fight for a Congressional seat.

Also on the next edition of Studio One, folk dancing is on the upswing according to Tom and Jeanne O’Neal of North Country Fiddle and Dance. The couple has been promoting folk dancing for many years and will show us how people of all ages can enjoy this pastime.

Studio One is an award-winning news and information program produced at the University of North Dakota Television Center. The program airs live on UND Channel 3 at 5 p.m. Thursdays. Rebroadcasts can be seen at 7 a.m., noon, 7 p.m., and 11 p.m. daily and on Saturdays at 10 a.m. Prairie Public Television airs Studio One on Saturday at 6 a.m. The program can also be seen in Fargo, Bismarck/Mandan, Minot, Minneapolis, the Portland, Oregon metro area, the Denver, Colorado metro area, and Winnipeg, Manitoba.

– Studio One.


Campus walking trail maps available

Enjoy walking? Feel stressed and need a break? Want to get in shape? Want to become renewed and invigorated when outside? Check out the new walking trails on campus.

The physical wellness subcommittee, along with Rick Tonder, associate director of facilities, has created 14 walking/running trails for the UND campus. The trails, approximately one mile in length, cover most regions of campus and can be interconnected for a 5-10 mile walk. Three of the trails are indoor routes for year-round use. The School of Medicine loop even includes stair climbing to increase the workout.

Maps are available at the Wellness Center and Memorial Union and online through the UND home page at and the Wellness Center home page at

Obesity and poor fitness are health crises in America. College campuses are not immune. Let’s lower the risk at UND. Get active, get fit, and get healthy. See you on the trails.

– Matt Remfert, co-chair, physical wellness subcommittee.


31 Days of Glory raffle tickets on sale

UND’s staff senate is selling raffle tickets for “31 Days of Glory.” Winning tickets are drawn for each of the 31 days in December. The cost of a raffle ticket is $20. Drawings are held daily with cash prizes as follows: $100 (Monday – Saturday) and $500 (Sunday). If your name is drawn it will be put back in so you can win more than once. Proceeds go toward the staff senate scholarship fund to serve as a source of financial support to UND staff and their children. If you are interested in purchasing a ticket, contact any staff senator, a list of which is located on our web site at Good luck!

– Staff senate fundraising/scholarship subcommittee.

University Relations
University of North Dakota
411 Twamley Hall
Box 7144
Grand Forks, ND 58202
Tel: (701) 777-2731
Fax: (701) 777-4616